Air pollution has become the leading global environmental health risk, contributing to an increase in greenhouse gases and linked to 1 in 8 of all deaths worldwide. Over the Mediterranean region, regional temperatures are now ~1.3°C higher than during 1880–1920, compared with an increase of ~0.85°C worldwide. This is attributed, to the increase in tropospheric ozone, despite reduction in anthropogenic precursor emissions in Europe. In addition, the regional aerosol positive radiative forcing seems to dominate, exacerbating the warming effect.
For agriculture-based economies, the rapid change in the climate system and its consequences might prove disastrous. Over the Nile basin, climate change is found to enhance inter-annual variability of the total Nile flow by up to 50%, threatening food security in a region where human population is expected to double by 2050, approaching one billion. The impact of anthropogenic Mediterranean climate-forcing extends well beyond its geographical limits, and is shown to be an essential driver for present and future Sahel rainfall, potentially causing enormous human and socio-economic losses.
While it is clear that climate change and air pollution will threaten human health and agriculture in the Mediterranean region, there are key questions pertaining to biosphere-air pollution interactions in this region that remain unanswered. On one hand, air pollution can affect crops and ecosystems, and on the other hand, agricultural activities could be important sources of air and water pollution. Impacts of agricultural activities are due to nitrogen-containing compounds from fertilizers and pesticide applications. The large-scale utilization of mineral nitrogen-fertilizer is blamed for nitrate leaching, soil acidification, and gaseous emissions of nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonia and nitrogen oxides to the air which are important precursors of ozone and particulate matter.
Master in remote sensing - atmospheric chemistry, physics or other thematics
Strong knowlegdes in progamming (linux, python, matlab, R, etc.)
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